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The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and duration of juvenile effects, including the detection of trends, offsets and their influence upon signal strength.

The results show clearly that juvenile effects for oak from central England are very small and short-lived and that removing merely the first five rings closest to the pith is sufficient to avoid them.

While volatiles trapped in the remaining crustal residue are ultimately assimilated into the mantle, lighter volatiles from the crustal melt are fractionated and float up towards the surface to feed plate margin volcanoes.

Volatiles, such as CO is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.

This result greatly increases the potential for building long and well-replicated stable isotope chronologies using archived oak samples from historic building timbers, allowing high-resolution climate reconstructions to be produced for the highly-populated regions, where oak is abundant and which are currently under-represented in regional palaeoclimate reconstructions.

A brief survey of the literature concerning volcanogenic carbon dioxide emission finds that estimates of subaerial emission totals fail to account for the diversity of volcanic emissions and are unprepared for individual outliers that dominate known volcanic emissions.

Aboveground nuclear testing almost doubled the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere. The black arrow shows when the Partial Test Ban Treaty was enacted that banned aboveground nuclear tests. A special kind of radiocarbon dating: Bomb radiocarbon dating.

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The "solid earth", a term popular amongst climatologists, is a deceptive misnomer as the aesthenosphere is a deeply convecting fluid upon which flexible sheets of crust (i.e. This deeply convecting fluid tears these delicate plates apart at rift zones and crushes them together like the bonnet of a wrecked car at convergence zones.

Deepening the apparent mystery of total volcanogenic CO emission and fossil fuel consumption that are, to date, unquantified.

Furthermore, the discovery of a surprising number of submarine volcanoes highlights the underestimation of global volcanism and provides a loose basis for an estimate that may partly explain ocean acidification and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels observed last century, as well as shedding much needed light on intensified polar spring melts.

is a term for radiocarbon dating based on timestamps left by above-ground nuclear explosions, and it is especially useful for putting an absolute age on organisms that lived through those events.

In The Cosmic Story of Carbon-14 Ethan Siegel writes: The only major fluctuation [in carbon-14] we know of occurred when we began detonating nuclear weapons in the open air, back in the mid-20th century.